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# What is Cryptography in Cyber Security?

In this tutorial, you will learn what is Cryptography in Cyber Security, its functions, and more.

## Introduction

When you’re discussing cyber security, it’s easy to focus on the technical details of hacking, malware, and viruses. But a lot of cyber security comes down to the trustworthiness of the information. This is where cryptography comes in. This branch of mathematics has a variety of real-world applications.

In cyber security, this means cryptography is used to make data more trustworthy and secure. In this blog post, we will look at what is cryptography in cyber security, its functions in cyber security, and some examples of how it’s used.

## What is Cryptography?

Cryptography in cyber security is the practice of encoding information in a way that makes it unreadable to everyone except the intended recipient. This is a vital tool for protecting sensitive information in all industries, including the financial sector and healthcare. Cryptography is a very old practice, but the technology it relies on is always changing.

As new vulnerabilities are discovered, new protocols and algorithms must be developed to address them. Cryptography is often used to refer to the wider aspects of information security that go beyond just encoding data. It also involves protecting computers from infiltration and hacking attempts and ensuring that data can only be accessed by authorized users.

## Why is Cryptography Important in Cyber Security?

The main reason cryptography is important is it allows for data to be transmitted and stored in a secure manner. Without it, internet users would not be able to trust each other and banks would not be able to trust their customers.

Cryptography is the science of securing information by transforming it into unreadable (or seemingly unreadable) text. It is the basis for both data encryption and digital signatures. With encryption, a person or entity can “scramble” the data they share with others so that no one else can read it.

## Cryptography Functions in Cyber Security

Cryptography is key to all aspects of cyber security and protecting data. It has multiple functions, including:

1. Authentication: Confirming the identity of a user, system, or device - Authentication is one of the primary functions of cryptography in cyber security.
2. Encryption: Protecting data - Encryption is the process of converting an unbreakable code from a readable format that anyone can access to a seemingly unreadable format that only those with the correct decryption key can access.
3. Integrity: Verifying that data has not been altered - Integrity is another major function of cryptography in cyber security. When used in conjunction with authentication, it ensures that data has not been altered and is the same as when it was first created.
4. Non-repudiation: Ensuring that a person or entity cannot deny having sent or received data - Non-repudiation is one of the most important functions of cryptography in cyber security. It ensures that a person or entity cannot deny sending or receiving specific data.

## Cryptography Examples in Cyber Security

The following are some cryptography examples in cyber security to encrypt the data:

### Example 1: SHA-256 and Encryption with Hash Functions

SHA-256 is a hashing algorithm used for encryption. It is one of the most commonly used algorithms because it is both quick and inexpensive to compute. It is used for a variety of purposes, including securing passwords and electronic communications.

SHA-256 works by taking a digital input and converting it into a seemingly random sequence of letters and numbers known as a hash. While the random number sequence created by SHA-256 looks random, the original input can be recovered by using a mathematical formula.

### Example 2: VPNs and Encryption for Data Protection

VPNs (virtual private networks) are encrypted channels between two computers that protect data being transmitted across the internet. These channels are created using a VPN protocol, such as IPSec or OpenVPN. VPNs are commonly used by businesses to protect their data, as well as by individuals to protect their privacy while browsing the web.

### Example 3: Certificates and Signature Schemes for Identity Confirmation

Digital certificates are used to confirm the identity of individuals or organizations by digitally signing data. This signed data is known as a digital signature and is used for a variety of purposes, including proving identity and ensuring data has not been altered. Digital certificates are encrypted with a public key, which is decrypted by an individual’s or organization’s private key.

This ensures that only the holder of the private key can decrypt the certificate. Note that cryptography is not only used to encrypt sensitive data. It is also used to sign it, which means adding a digital signature so that others can verify the sender of the data.

## Bottom line

Cryptography in cyber security is the science of securing information by transforming it into unreadable (or seemingly unreadable) text. It is the basis for both data encryption and digital signatures. With encryption, a person or entity can “scramble” the data they share with others so that no one else can read it. However, cryptography is a constantly developing field, so it’s important for businesses to make sure they stay up to date with the latest developments.