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4 PL/SQL Anonymous Block Examples

In this tutorial, I am giving 4 PL/SQL anonymous block examples, so that you can learn how to create and use anonymous blocks in Oracle database. Anonymous blocks in PL/SQL are the programs which are not having any Create Procedure or Create Function statement, and it does not save in Oracle database. PL/SQL anonymous blocks mostly used for testing or to run the program in Oracle database for one time only.

1. PL/SQL Anonymous Block To Print Numbers in Reverse Order

The following PL/SQL program will print the numbers 0 to10 in reverse order, using REVERSE clause in for loop.

SET SERVEROUTPUT ON;
DECLARE
  counter   NUMBER;
BEGIN
  FOR counter IN REVERSE 0..10 LOOP
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (counter);
  END LOOP;
END;
/

Output

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

2. Print Employees Count in a Department

The following PL/SQL program will count the employees in department 90. The table is from the HR schema of the Oracle database. You can download this schema from the following link Download HR Schema.

SET SERVEROUTPUT ON;

DECLARE
   emp_count         NUMBER;
   v_department_id   NUMBER := 90;
BEGIN
   SELECT COUNT ( * )
     INTO emp_count
     FROM employees
    WHERE department_id = v_department_id;

   DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(   'The employee count is: '
                        || emp_count
                        || ' for the department with an ID of: '
                        || v_department_id);
END;
/

Output

The employee count is: 3 for the department with an ID of: 90
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

3. Take Input in PL/SQL Anonymous Block and Print

In the below example, it will ask for the input from the user for department id and will print the employee count in that department, and also will print the department name.

SET SERVEROUTPUT ON;

DECLARE
   dept_id_var   NUMBER (4) := &department_id;
   dept_name     VARCHAR2 (30);
   emp_count     NUMBER;
BEGIN
   SELECT COUNT ( * )
     INTO emp_count
     FROM employees
    WHERE department_id = dept_id_var;

   SELECT department_name
     INTO dept_name
     FROM departments
    WHERE department_id = dept_id_var;

   DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(   'There are '
                        || emp_count
                        || ' employees '
                        || 'in the '
                        || dept_name
                        || ' department.');
END;
/

Output

Enter value for department_id: 60
old   2:   dept_id_var  NUMBER(4) := &department_id;
new   2:   dept_id_var  NUMBER(4) := 60;
There are 4 employees in the IT department.

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

4. PL/SQL Block With <<Labels>> Example

The following PL/SQL block is using the labels for parent and child block. The child block will access parent block’s variable by using the label reference of the parent block. The program will update the old manager id with new manager id for the departments.

SET SERVEROUTPUT ON;
<<outer_block>>
DECLARE
   mgr_id       NUMBER (6) := '&current_manager_id';
   dept_count   NUMBER := 0;
BEGIN
   SELECT COUNT ( * )
     INTO dept_count
     FROM departments
    WHERE manager_id = outer_block.mgr_id;

   IF dept_count > 0
   THEN
     <<inner_block>>
      DECLARE
         dept_name   VARCHAR2 (30);
         mgr_id      NUMBER (6) := '&new_manager_id';
      BEGIN
         SELECT department_name
           INTO dept_name
           FROM departments
          WHERE manager_id = outer_block.mgr_id;

         UPDATE departments
            SET manager_id = inner_block.mgr_id
          WHERE manager_id = outer_block.mgr_id;

         DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (
            'Department manager ID has been changed for ' || dept_name);
      END inner_block;
   ELSE
      DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (
         'There are no departments listed for the manager');
   END IF;
EXCEPTION
   WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND
   THEN
      DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (
         'There are no departments listed for the manager');
END outer_block;
/

Output

Enter value for current_manager_id: 100
old 3: mgr_id NUMBER (6) := '&current_manager_id';
new 3: mgr_id NUMBER (6) := '100';
Enter value for new_manager_id: 201
old 16: mgr_id NUMBER (6) := '&new_manager_id';
new 16: mgr_id NUMBER (6) := '201';
Department manager ID has been changed for Executive

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.